Tuesday, July 24, 2012


Football hooliganism is widely considered to be unruly and destructive behaviour. Actions such as brawling, vandalism and intimidation are enacted by association football club fans participating in football hooliganism.The behaviour is often based upon rivalry between different teams and conflict may take place before or after football matches. Participants often select locations away from stadia to avoid arrest by the police, but conflict can also erupt spontaneously inside the stadium or in the surrounding streets.
Football hooliganism can range from shouts and small-scale fistfights to huge riots where firms attack each other with deadly weapons(including, but not limited to, sports bats, glass bottles, rocks, knives, machetes and pistols). In some cases, stadium brawls have caused fans to flee in panic and injuries have been caused when fences or walls have collapsed from the pressure of the exiting crowd.In the most extreme cases, hooligans, police, and bystanders have been killed, and riot police have intervened with tear gasarmoured vehicles and water cannons.
The first instance of football violence is unknown, but the phenomenon can be traced back to the 14th century England. In 1314, Edward II banned football (at that time, a violent, unruly activity involving rival villages kicking a pig's bladder across the local heath) because he believed the disorder surrounding matches might lead to social unrest, or even treason. According to a University of Liverpool academic paper, conflict at an 1846 match in Derby, England, required a reading of the "riot act" and two groups of dragoons to effectively respond to the disorderly crowd. This same paper also identified "pitch invasions" as a common occurrence during the 1880s in English football.
The first recorded instances of football hooliganism in the modern game allegedly occurred during the 1880s in England, a period when gangs of supporters would intimidate neighbourhoods, in addition to attacking referees, opposing supporters and players. In 1885, after Preston North End beat Aston Villa 5-0 in a friendly match, both teams were pelted with stones, attacked with sticks, punched, kicked and spat at. One Preston player was beaten so severely that he lost consciousness and press reports at the time described the fans as "howling roughs". The following year, Preston fans fought Queen's Park fans in a railway station—the first alleged instance of football hooliganism outside of a match. In 1905, a number of Preston fans were tried for hooliganism, including a "drunk and disorderly" 70 year-old woman, following their match against Blackburn Rovers.
Between the two World Wars, there were no recorded instances of football hooliganism (although, Millwall's ground was reportedly closed in 1920, 1934 and 1950 after crowd disturbances). The phenomenon then regained the media's attention in the late-1950s due to the re-emergence of violence in Latin American football. In the 1955-56 English football season, Liverpool and Everton fans were involved in a number of incidents and, by the 1960s, an average of 25 hooligan incidents were being reported each year in England.
Hooliganism has been associated with football since it began. In the early years of football as a professional sport so called roughs were regularly reported to be causing trouble at matches. The biggest rivalries were, and still are, between clubs from the same city or local area. Trouble was reported at these games as early as the nineteenth century. As well as attacking opposition fans, the roughs used to attack players and referees. After this period, and particularly between the two world wars, football gained a more respectable reputation and crowd violence, although not totally wiped out, started to decline. It was not until the early 1960s that hooliganism once again became a serious problem, particularly in the media. This was expressed as a part of the overriding culture of youth rebellion and moral panic at the time. This came about as a result of rising juvenile crime rates, uncertainty about the future and new movements like the Teddy boys. Along with other overriding themes that have been present when hooliganism is considered a problem there was racism in society that manifested itself in things like the Notting Hill disturbances. Football stadiums became identified as a place where fights could easily take place. It was around this time that football hooliganism began to take on the coherent structure of groups that it has today. Must of these groups emerged from the working class housing estates of the major cities. Loose alliances were formed amongst young men on match days and they occupied the terraces behind the goals at stadiums. This led to the development of a strong local feeling that had to be defended against other groups. As a result a national network of rival gangs was built up and fights regularly took place inside football grounds.
However, in recent times there has been a move away from this idea of fighting in stadiums and groups arrange to meet outside grounds, before or after matches. Football hooliganism has moved on even from the days of the firms of the 1970s and 1980s. At this time football hooligans thought they were having "a bit of a laugh." Activities like verbally abusing opposition fans and threatening them with attack. The hardcore that were violent cause most damage by causing fights between rival groups of supporters. Due to changes in the 1990s, particularly the introduction of all seater stadia after the Hillsborough disaster, hooligan activity has almost completely moved out of the stadiums. Although a hardcore does remain, most violence occurs outside the grounds. Modern technology is used to organise fights between different groups of hooligans. In particular the Internet and mobile phones have become the main weapon of the football hooligan. Mobile phones are used to finalise details and call in reinforcements. When fights do break out in football stadiums, the most common sight is someone on a mobile phone getting more hooligans to join in. Although there is not the coverage or hysteria regarding football that was seen in the 1980s. Hooliganism still takes place between rival sets of English supporters. Recently a prearranged fight took place in Rochdale between Manchester United fans, who are noted for their lack of passion and corporate approach to football, and Leeds United supporters. Local derby games often lead to violent battles between supporters; the most recent examples are in Burnley and Sheffield. On the Internet gangs from Queens Park Rangers and Arsenal taunted each other about fights after their FA cup game. Football violence occurs at all levels of the game. Bishop Auckland supporters recently staged pitch invasions and fought with police during an FA Trophy game against Burton Albion. At the other end of the scale, recent violence from England fans, most notably in Marseilles and Charleroi, shows hooliganism is a Europe wide problem.

What do Milan, Johannesburg, Rio de Janeiro, Charleroi, Marseilles, Warsaw, Hong Kong, Kurdistan, Leipzig, Brunei, Palo Alto, Shiraz and Nairobi have in common with Rochdale, London, Burnley, Sheffield and Burton on Trent? They have all had incidents of hooliganism in the last year. Although Hooliganism is most readily associated with supporters of English teams it is not exclusively an English based or influenced problem. Other countries also produce hooligans. In fact, in the early 1960s the English league did not want to participate in European club competition due to the perceived threat from foreign supporters. Although English supporters seem to be more likely to cause trouble abroad, there are serious problems in countries including Holland, Germany, Italy and Spain. Hooligans from these countries are also starting to be active in other countries. This can be seen in recent European tournaments where German hooliganism was as much a problem as English hooliganism. German hooliganism has a particularly bad reputation as its groups are linked to far right organisations that have become more prevalent since the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Many football grounds have become a no go area for non-Germans. Groups like the ultras, who support different clubs in Italy, are also starting to gain a worse reputation for football violence than their English counterparts. A Leeds United fan was stabbed in Milan before a Champions league game in November and Bologna fans recently fought with police and set fire to cars in a car park. Other countries have also been affected. In France recently, an assistant referee was hit by a firecracker during a football match in Strasbourg. Holland has also been affected with Den Bosch supporters rioting for three days after a match was called off after a fan was shot. Problems in Europe come to a head when hooligans from different countries meet up for World Cups and European Championships. It is no surprise that the only major football tournament, held in recent years not to be scarred by violence was the 1994 World Cup in the USA. The European Championships in 1988 in Germany, in 1992 in Sweden, in 1996 in England and in 2000 in Holland and Belgium have all been marred by hooliganism. This has also affect the 1990 and 1998 World Cups held in Italy and France respectively. Hooliganism is not an English problem, it is a European, and on a greater level, a world problem.

A football firm (also known as a hooligan firm) is a gang formed for the specific purpose of antagonising and physically attacking supporters of other clubs. Some firms exist to promote fringepolitical causes, both on the far Left and Right, and, in some cases, the promotion of political ideals through violence is of greater importance than the football club itself.
In the 1970s and early 1980s, the "casual" subculture transformed the British football hooligan scene. Instead of wearing skinhead-style, working class clothes, which readily identified hooligans to the police, firm members began wearing designer clothes and expensive "offhand" sportswear (clothing worn without careful attention to practical considerations).

Monday, July 23, 2012


Ultras are a type of sport fans renowned for their fanatical support and elaborate displays. They are predominantly European followers of football teams. The behavioral tendency of ultras groups includes the use of flares (primarily in tifo choreography), vocal support in large groups and the displaying of banners at football stadiums, all of which are designed to create an atmosphere which encourages their own team and intimidates opposing players and supporters.
The actions of ultras groups can occasionally be overly extreme and are sometimes influenced by political ideologies or views on racism, in some instances to the point where the central ideology of the ultras phenomenon, passionate and loyal support of one's team, becomes a sideshow. In recent decades, the culture has become a focal point for the movement against thecommercialization of sports and football in particular.
The origin of the ultras movement is disputed, with many supporters groups from various countries making claims solely on the basis of their dates of foundation. The level of dispute and confusion is aided by a contemporary tendency (mainly in Europe) to categorize all groups of overtly fanatical supporters as ultras. Supporters groups of a nature comparable to the ultras have been present in Brazil since 1939, when the first torcida organizada was formed. Inspired by the torcidas and the colorful scenes of the 1950 World Cup, supporters of Hajduk Split formed Torcida Split on 28 October 1950. The group is often cited as the oldest ultras/torcida style group in Europe.
The country most associated with the ultras movement is Italy. The first Italian ultras groups were formed in 1951, including the Fedelissimi Granata of Torino. The 1960s saw the continuing spread and development of the culture with the formation of the Fossa dei Leoni and Boys San groups, the former often regarded in Italy as the first full-fledged ultras group. The term Ultras was used as a name for the first time in 1969 when supporters of Sampdoria formed the Ultras Tito Cucchiaroni and fans of Torino formed the Ultras Granata. The style of support that would become synonymous with Italian football developed most during the 1970s as more groups formed and the active support of the ultras became more apparent, in contrast with the "traditional" culture. Choreographic displays, signature banners and symbols, giant flags, drums and fireworks became the norm as groups aimed to take their support to higher levels. The decade also saw the violence and unrest of Italian society at the time overlap with the ultras movement, adding a dimension that has plagued it ever since.
The ultras movement spread across Europe during the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s, starting with the countries geographically closest to Italy. The effects on the footballing cultures of the countries involved were more profound in some and less in others, as a certain level of organization amongst fans and/or a tradition of colorful support would have long been present in many countries.GermanyBelgium and the Netherlands, three countries whose footballing cultures were more influenced by British football in the past, experienced significant change. English football is a rare example of a footballing culture in Europe which hasn't been heavily influenced by the ultras movement.
Ultras groups are usually based around a core group of founders or leaders (who tend to hold executive control), with smaller subgroups organized by location, friendship or political stance. Ultras tend to use various styles and sizes of banners and flags bearing the name and symbols of their group. Some ultras groups sell their own merchandise to raise funds for performing displays. An ultras group can number from a handful of fans to hundreds or thousands, with larger groups often claiming entire sections of a stadium for themselves. Ultras groups often have a representative who liaises with the club owners on a regular basis, mostly regarding tickets, seat allocations and storage facilities. Some clubs provide groups with cheaper tickets, storage rooms for flags and banners and early access to the stadium before matches in order to prepare displays. These types of favored relationships are often criticized when ultras groups abuse their power.
While ultras groups can become violent, the vast majority of matches attended by ultras conclude with no violent incidents. Unlike hooligan firms, whose main aim is to fight hooligans of other clubs, the main focus of ultras is to support their own team.Hooligans usually try to be inconspicuous when they travel; usually not wearing team colors, in order to avoid detection by thepolice. Ultras tend to be more conspicuous when they travel, proudly displaying their scarves and club colors while arriving en masse, which allows the police to keep a close eye on their movements.
However, there appears to be a degree of crossover in some countries between ultras and hooligans. In Italy, when English club Middlesbrough played a match against AS Roma in March 2006, three Middlesbrough fans were stabbed in an attack that was blamed on Roma supporting ultras.

Every group has there own style some like to make more  coreografies and pyro shows and some tend to use more of the old style english type,every group has its own way of lifting the atmosphere and lifting the players spirits.The fighting rules are different to but they go on a national level thats why many countries have there own style like the Russian : They tend to use fare fight(organised),same number on each side no weapons just pure fighting !
And there is the Turkish .... fanatical....no rules they yous knifes,guns,rocks every ting they can grab a hold off ...
Right there in the middle is the ordinary ultra style used by the Srbs,Greeks,Croats,Bulgarians many others(mainly from the balkans) in fighting baseball bats are allowed iron bars,brass knuckles ... but no knifes and no guns (only pu**ys stab is the parole)  ....Ultra style is a style of cheering so there are no clear rules of fighting.